Breakpoints
The SIDP Podcast

#67 – Nixing the Nidus: Managing Retained Sources in Prosthetic Joint Infections

Dr. Laura Certain (@laura_certain) and Dr. Nico Cortes-Penfield (@Cortes_Penfield) join Dr. Julie Ann Justo (@julie_justo) to discuss all things related to prosthetic joint infections. Tune in to learn about what comprises a bacterial biofilm, how it develops, and ways to combat it using the latest evidence-based antibiotic regimens. We also take a look at what’s on the horizon for the field of orthopedic infectious diseases.

Learn more about the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists: https://sidp.org/About Twitter: @SIDPharm (https://twitter.com/SIDPharm) Instagram: @SIDPharm (https://www.instagram.com/sidpharm/) Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/sidprx LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/sidp/

References:

  1. Cortés-Penfield NW, Kulkarni PA. The History of Antibiotic Treatment of Osteomyelitis. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019 Apr 8;6(5):ofz181. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofz181. PMID: 31123692.
  2. Bernard L, et al. Antibiotic Therapy for 6 or 12 Weeks for Prosthetic Joint Infection. N Engl J Med. 2021 May 27;384(21):1991-2001. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2020198. PMID: 34042388. (DATIPO trial)
  3. Gallagher C, et al. Impact of Implementing an IV to PO Antibiotic Treatment Protocol for Orthopedic Infections ion Prescribing Habits and Health Utilization Outcomes. IDWeek 2022. Poster 909.
  4. Febrile Podcast. Episode #31 – Truth or DAIR. 2022 Feb 28. https://febrilepodcast.com/episode-31-truth-or-dair/
  5. Frank JM, et al. The Mark Coventry, MD, Award: Oral Antibiotics Reduce Reinfection After Two-Stage Exchange: A Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Trial. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2017 Jan;475(1):56-61. doi: 10.1007/s11999-016-4890-4. PMID: 27387759.
  6. Kelly MP, et al. Extended Oral Antibiotics Increase Bacterial Resistance in Patients Who Fail 2-Stage Exchange for Periprosthetic Joint Infection. J Arthroplasty. 2022 Aug;37(8S):S989-S996. doi: 10.1016/j.arth.2022.01.027. PMID: 35074446.
  7. Payne J, et al. Inducing Antimicrobial Resistance with Long-term Antibiotics at Stage 2 Revision for Periprosthetic Joint Infection. IDWeek 2022. Poster 981.
  8. Frost P, et al. Phototoxic potential of minocycline and doxycycline. Arch Dermatol. 1972 May;105(5):681-3. PMID: 5026677.
  9. Lode H, et al. Comparative pharmacokinetics of cephalexin, cefaclor, cefadroxil, and CGP 9000. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1979 Jul;16(1):1-6. doi: 10.1128/AAC.16.1.1. PMID: 475366.
  10. Sader HS, et al. In vitro activity of cefpodoxime compared with other oral cephalosporins tested against 5556 recent clinical isolates from five medical centers. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1993 Aug-Sep;17(2):143-50. doi: 10.1016/0732-8893(93)90025-3. PMID: 8243035.
  11. Green S & Tsai YV. Precision Dosing of To-Marrow: Linezolid Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. ContagionLive: Bench to Bedside with SIDP. 2022 Nov 3. https://www.contagionlive.com/view/precision-dosing-of-to-marrow-linezolid-therapeutic-drug-monitoring

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#66 – The Swinging PEN-dulum: Evolving Approaches to Cephalosporin Use in Penicillin Allergic Patients

Dr. Kimberly Blumenthal (@KimberlyBlumen1), Dr. Meghan Jeffres (@PharmerMeg), and Dr. Eric Macy (@EricMacyMD) join Dr. Julie Ann Justo (@julie_justo) to summarize the history of cephalosporin avoidance in penicillin allergies, evidence-based pros and cons of giving cephalosporins in penicillin allergy, how to leverage technology to improve treatment of patients with penicillin allergies, and much more!

Learn more about the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists: https://sidp.org/About Twitter: @SIDPharm (https://twitter.com/SIDPharm) Instagram: @SIDPharm (https://www.instagram.com/sidpharm/) Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/sidprx LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/sidp/

References

  1. Macy E. Why Was There Ever a Warning Not to Use Cephalosporins in the Setting of a Penicillin "Allergy"? J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021 Nov;9(11):3929-3933. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2021.06.059. PMID: 34303019.
  2. Liang EH, et al. Adverse Reactions Associated with Penicillins, Carbapenems, Monobactams, and Clindamycin: A Retrospective Population-based Study. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2020 Apr;8(4):1302-1313.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2019.11.035. PMID: 31821919.
  3. Macy E, Contreras R. Adverse reactions associated with oral and parenteral use of cephalosporins: A retrospective population-based analysis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Mar;135(3):745-52.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2014.07.062. PMID: 25262461.
  4. Macy E, et al. Population-Based Incidence of New Ampicillin, Cephalexin, Cefaclor, and Sulfonamide Antibiotic "Allergies" in Exposed Individuals with and without Preexisting Ampicillin, Cephalexin, or Cefaclor "Allergies". J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2022 Feb;10(2):550-555. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2021.10.043. PMID: 34757066.
  5. Picard M, et al. Cross-Reactivity to Cephalosporins and Carbapenems in Penicillin-Allergic Patients: Two Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019 Nov-Dec;7(8):2722-2738.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2019.05.038. PMID: 31170539.
  6. Romano A, et al. Cross-reactivity and tolerability of aztreonam and cephalosporins in subjects with a T cell-mediated hypersensitivity to penicillins. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Jul;138(1):179-186. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2016.01.025. PMID: 27016799.
  7. Romano A, et al. Cross-Reactivity and Tolerability of Cephalosporins in Patients with IgE-Mediated Hypersensitivity to Penicillins. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018 Sep-Oct;6(5):1662-1672. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2018.01.020. PMID: 29408440.
  8. Blumenthal KG, et al. The Impact of a Reported Penicillin Allergy on Surgical Site Infection Risk. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Jan 18;66(3):329-336. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix794. PMID: 29361015.
  9. Blumenthal KG, et al. Risk of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile in patients with a documented penicillin allergy: population based matched cohort study. BMJ. 2018 Jun 27;361:k2400. doi: 10.1136/bmj.k2400. PMID: 29950489.
  10. Blumenthal KG, et al. Recorded Penicillin Allergy and Risk of Mortality: a Population-Based Matched Cohort Study. J Gen Intern Med. 2019 Sep;34(9):1685-1687. doi: 10.1007/s11606-019-04991-y. PMID: 31011962.
  11. Macy E, Contreras R. Health care use and serious infection prevalence associated with penicillin "allergy" in hospitalized patients: A cohort study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Mar;133(3):790-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2013.09.021. PMID: 24188976.
  12. AAAI. Choosing Wisely. 2014 Mar 3. https://www.choosingwisely.org/clinician-lists/american-academy-allergy-asthma-immunlogy-non-beta-lactam-antibiotics-penicillin-allergy/
  13. Jeffres MN, et al. Systematic review of professional liability when prescribing β-lactams for patients with a known penicillin allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2018 Nov;121(5):530-536. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2018.03.010. PMID: 29551402.
  14. Macy E, et al. Association Between Removal of a Warning Against Cephalosporin Use in Patients With Penicillin Allergy and Antibiotic Prescribing. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e218367. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.8367. PMID: 33914051.
  15. Blumenthal KG, et al. Addressing Inpatient Beta-Lactam Allergies: A Multihospital Implementation. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017 May-Jun;5(3):616-625.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2017.02.019. PMID: 28483315.
  16. Jeffres M. Penicillin and/or Beta-Lactam Allergy Tip Sheet & Cross-reactivity Table. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1cokYXnSDlO3vk8ke1LaalPz4iavuNSV8/view?usp=share_link
  17. Khan DA, et al. Drug allergy: A 2022 practice parameter update. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2022 Sep 17:S0091-6749(22)01186-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2022.08.028. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36122788.
  18. Guyer AC, et al. Allergy Electronic Health Record Documentation: A 2022 Work Group Report of the AAAAI Adverse Reactions to Drugs, Biologicals, and Latex Committee. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2022 Nov;10(11):2854-2867. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2022.08.020. PMID: 36151034.
  19. Iammatteo M, et al. Safety and Outcomes of Oral Graded Challenges to Amoxicillin without Prior Skin Testing. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019 Jan;7(1):236-243. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2018.05.008. PMID: 29802906.
  20. Bavbek S, et al. Determinants of nocebo effect during oral drug provocation tests. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2015 Jul-Aug;43(4):339-45. doi: 10.1016/j.aller.2014.04.008. PMID: 25088674.
  21. DePestel DD, et al. Cephalosporin use in treatment of patients with penicillin allergies. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2008 Jul-Aug;48(4):530-40. doi: 10.1331/JAPhA.2008.07006. PMID: 18653431.

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#65 – Into the Unknown: Exploring Fever of Unknown Origin with Febrile Podcast

In this special collaborative episode, Dr. Sara Dong (@swinndong) of Febrile podcast (@febrilepodcast) and Dr. Ghady Haidar (@cleverwebber) join Dr. Erin McCreary (@ErinMcCreary) to discuss all aspects of FUO, including classification, diagnosis, management, and more! Have the fever of unknown origin review article from the February 2022 edition of NEJM (@NEJM) handy to follow along with the group.

References Haidar G, Singh N. Fever of unknown origin. N Engl J Med 2022;386:463-77.

LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/sidp/ Learn more about the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists: https://sidp.org/About Twitter: @SIDPharm (https://twitter.com/SIDPharm) Instagram: @SIDPharm (https://www.instagram.com/sidpharm/) Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/sidprx

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#64 – Putting the Fun in Fungi: A Fun-guide to New Antifungals

In this spore-tacular episode of Breakpoints, Drs. Nathan Wiederhold and Kayla Stover (@stoverkr) join Dr. Erin McCreary (@ErinMcCreary) to discuss updates on the antifungal pipeline, offer pearls regarding their place in therapy, and teach us how to pronounce the drug names.

Learn more about the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists: https://sidp.org/About Twitter: @SIDPharm (https://twitter.com/SIDPharm) Instagram: @SIDPharm (https://www.instagram.com/sidpharm/) Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/sidprx LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/sidp/

References

  1. Hoenigl M, Sprute R, Egger M, et al. The antifungal pipeline: fosmanogepix, ibrexafungerp, olorofim, opelconazole, and rezafungin. Drugs. 2021;81(15):1703-29.

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#63 – I Never Metapneumovirus that Required Antibiotics: Prevention & Treatment of Common Respiratory Viruses in Adults

Episode Notes

Drs. Ann Falsey, Crystal Hodge (@Howzzeee) and Michael Ison (@MichaelGIsonMD) join Dr. Jillian Hayes (@thejillianhayes) for a review of non-COVID respiratory viruses. Tune in for a review of current epidemiological changes, the vaccine pipeline, and current treatment options. 

This episode was supported by an educational grant from Janssen Therapeutics, Division of Janssen Products, LP.

Learn more about the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists: https://sidp.org/About Twitter: @SIDPharm (https://twitter.com/SIDPharm) Instagram: @SIDPharm (https://www.instagram.com/sidpharm/) Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/sidprx LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/sidp

References

  1. Community-acquired respiratory viruses in transplant patients (PMID 31511250)
  2. Clinical Transplantation 2019 special issue on Transplant Infectious Diseases Guidelines: ](https://urldefense.com/v3/https:/onlinelibrary.wiley.com/toc/13990012/2019/33/9;!!OToaGQ!ujpO69U-82gjgidcyi6YshodQ4umKoYBRbC6wcHf-7QtOVoXotlCzZSwBl7eXjGal8O6D5qQIF8k7_GUOsi3weedNyWNXbw$)[https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/toc/13990012/2019/33/9
  3. ECIL-4 Fourth European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL-4): Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Parainfluenza Virus, Metapneumovirus, Rhinovirus, and Coronavirus https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cis844
  4. JID RSV Supplements: https://academic.oup.com/jid/issue/226/Supplement_1, https://academic.oup.com/jid/issue/226/Supplement_2 
  5. CID Precision Vaccinology Supplement: https://academic.oup.com/cid/issue/75/Supplement_1 
  6. Net State of Immunosuppression (PMID 32803228)
  7. Inflammatory and Infectious Syndromes Associated With Cancer Immunotherapies (PMID 30520987)
  8. Biologic response modifiers (PMID 28263774)
  9. Invasive fungal infections and targeted therapies in hematologic malignancies (PMID 34947040)
  10. Impact of COVID-19 on Influenza vaccination strategies (PMID 35607766)
  11. Zanamivir vs oseltamivir (PMID 35299245)
  12. Peramivir vs oseltamivir (PMIDs 33447633, 33006445)
  13. FLAGSTONE (PMID 35085510)
  14. CAPSTONE-2 (PMID 32526195) 
  15. Neuraminidase inhibitor benefits beyond 48 hours (PMID 33434667, 32898685, 24815805, 24268590)
  16. Baloxavir for prophylaxis of household contacts (PMID 32640124)
  17. Oral ribavirin for RSV in HCT (PMID 30202920)
  18. Ribavirin for RSV and human metapneumovirus in HCT (PMID 32162389)
  19. DAS181 for parainfluenza virus (PMID 33569576)

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#62 – Novel TheraPOOtics: The Microbiome, C. difficile, and LBPs

In this spore-tacular episode of Breakpoints, Drs. Anne Gonzales-Luna (@anniejayTX) and Paul Feuerstadt (@DrPaulGastro) join Dr. Rachel Britt (@rachelbpharmd) to discuss the microbiome, its relationship to C. difficile, and the new area of microbiota-based live biotherapeutic products (LBPs).

This podcast was sponsored by an unrestricted medical education grant from Ferring Pharmaceuticals.

Learn more about the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists: https://sidp.org/About Twitter: @SIDPharm (https://twitter.com/SIDPharm) Instagram: @SIDPharm (https://www.instagram.com/sidpharm/) Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/sidprx LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/sidp/

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#61 – Dosing Consult: Linezolid Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

In the second episode of Breakpoints' Dosing Consult series, Drs. Ryan Crass (@crasspofungin) and Amit Pai (@DosingMatters) join Dr. Jillian Hayes (@thejillianhayes) to break down the 5 Ws and 1 H of linezolid TDM. 

LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/sidp/ Learn more about the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists: https://sidp.org/About Twitter: @SIDPharm (https://twitter.com/SIDPharm) Instagram: @SIDPharm (https://www.instagram.com/sidpharm/) Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/sidprx

Bibliography

  1. Abdul-Aziz MH, et al. Intensive Care Med. 2020 Jun;46(6):1127-1153. doi: 10.1007/s00134-020-06050-1. Epub 2020 May 7. PMID: 32383061.
  2. Abdul-Aziz MH, et al. Ther Drug Monit. 2022 Feb 1;44(1):19-31. doi: 10.1097/FTD.0000000000000940. PMID: 34750338.
  3. Andes D, et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46(11):3484-3489. doi:10.1128/AAC.46.11.3484-3489.2002. PMID: 12384354.
  4. Bandín-Vilar E, et al. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2022;61(6):789-817. doi:10.1007/s40262-022-01125-2. PMID: 35699914.
  5. Boak LM, Rayner CR, Grayson ML, et al. Clinical population pharmacokinetics and toxicodynamics of linezolid. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58(4):2334-2343. doi:10.1128/AAC.01885-13. PMID: 24514086.  
  6. Crass RL, et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Jul 25;63(8):e00605-19. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00605-19. PMID: 31109977.  
  7. Cojutti P, et al. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2018 Aug;57(8):989-1000. doi: 10.1007/s40262-017-0606-5. PMID: 29080937.
  8. Dong HY, et al. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014;33(6):1029-1035. doi:10.1007/s10096-013-2041-3. PMID: 24515096. 
  9. Matsumoto K, et al. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2014;44(3):242-247. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2014.05.010. PMID: 25108880. 
  10. Meagher AK, et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47(2):548-553. doi:10.1128/AAC.47.2.548-553.2003. PMID: 12543657. 
  11. Obach RS. Drug Metab Dispos. 2022 Apr;50(4):413-421. doi: 10.1124/dmd.121.000776. PMID: 35042700.
  12. Pea F, et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Nov;54(11):4605-10. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00177-10. Epub 2010 Aug 23. PMID: 20733043. 
  13. Pea F, et al. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Aug;67(8):2034-42. doi: 10.1093/jac/dks153. Epub 2012 May 2. PMID: 22553142.
  14. Rao GG, et al. Ther Drug Monit. 2020 Feb;42(1):83-92. doi: 10.1097/FTD.0000000000000710. PMID: 31652190.
  15. Rayner CR, et al. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2003;42(15):1411-23. doi: 10.2165/00003088-200342150-00007. PMID: 14674791.
  16. Taubert M, et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 Aug 22;60(9):5254-61. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00356-16. PMID: 27324768. 
  17. Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists | Contagion Live

Laboratories that offer linezolid assay results:

  1. Infectious Disease Pharmacokinetics Laboratory (https://idpl.pharmacy.ufl.edu/ )
  2. Atlantic Diagnostics Laboratories (https://atlanticdiagnosticlaboratories.com/lab-tests )
  3. National Jewish Health PK Laboratory (ttps://www.nationaljewish.org/for-professionals/diagnostic-testing/adx/tests/linezolid,-level)

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#60 – Going MAD for Non-COVID ID Literature: A Year in Review LIVE from MAD-ID

In this special LIVE podcast episode, Drs. Emily Heil (@emilylheil) and Erin McCreary (@Erin McCreary) sit down at MAD-ID 2022 (@MAD_ID_ASP) and give a rundown of 36 of some of the best ID papers, abstracts, studies, and other cool stuff from 2021 and early 2022! They cover everything from ECCMID late breakers to gram-negative RCTs to stewardship to fungi (but NOT COVID-19). Listen now!

Handout: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1OdYP9WpNGFmslw_G_vTPYF0cJZoxN8jo/view

LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/sidp/ Learn more about the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists: https://sidp.org/About Twitter: @SIDPharm (https://twitter.com/SIDPharm) Instagram: @SIDPharm (https://www.instagram.com/sidpharm/) Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/sidprx

References PMIDs

  1. IMPRESU: 34620666
  2. TARGET: 35106617
  3. MERINO-2: 34395716
  4. Tazobactam SIDP Insight: 34689349
  5. TMP-SMX vs FQ for Steno: 35097154
  6. Elexacaftor-Tezacaftor-Ivacaftor: 35142340
  7. Antibiotic Inertia: 34596206
  8. Antibiotic Overuse at Discharge: 34554249
  9. Pharmacist-Driven TOC: 35536577
  10. Tele-stewardship: 34141816
  11. MRSA Surveillance Culture: 29340593
  12. MRSA Screen Durability: 33788910
  13. Antifungal Pipeline: 34626339
  14. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing: 347784889
  15. Posa vs Vori for Aspergillosis: 33549194
  16. AMBITION: 35320642
  17. FLAGSTONE: 35085510
  18. SOLSTICE: 34864943
  19. Probiotics for Primary Prevention: 33972996
  20. Probiotics and VAP: 34546300
  21. SER-109: 35045228
  22. Bayesian vs First-Order Vanc AUC: 35134264
  23. Beta-lactam Admin Order: 34606585
  24. Candida Endophthalmitis: 34293405
  25. FUO Review: 35108471
  26. 7 vs 14 Days for Male UTI: 34313686

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#59 – Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Pearls and Perils

Drs. Antonio Oliver (@aoliverp73) and Maggie Monogue (@MaggieMonogue) join Dr. Erin McCreary (@Erin McCreary) to discuss all things Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Tune in to learn from some of the best about the complexities of P. aeruginosa resistance, the role of various antibiotics in the management of DTR isolates, and much more!

This podcast was sponsored by an unrestricted medical education grant from Abbvie.

LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/sidp/ Learn more about the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists: https://sidp.org/About Twitter: @SIDPharm (https://twitter.com/SIDPharm) Instagram: @SIDPharm (https://www.instagram.com/sidpharm/) Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/sidprx

References Shields RK, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2022;ciac097. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciac097.

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#58 – We're Gonorrhea-valuate: Updates and Implementation of STI Treatment Guidelines

Drs. Brian Werth (@bdubrx), Zack Nelson (@zacroBID) and Amy Brotherton (@AmyBrother10) join Dr. Jillian Hayes (@thejillianhayes) to discuss updates in the management of sexually transmitted infections. Listen in for guidance on how doses are selected, practical implementation of guideline changes, and how to discuss these changes with patients.

Learn more about the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists: https://sidp.org/About Twitter: @SIDPharm (https://twitter.com/SIDPharm) Instagram: @SIDPharm (https://www.instagram.com/sidpharm/) Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/sidprx LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/sidp/

References

  1. St. Cyr S, et al. Update to CDC’s Treatment Guidelines for Gonococcal Infection, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:1911–1916. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6950a6
  2. STI treatment guidelines. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment-guidelines/default.htm. Published 2021. Accessed May 12, 2022. 
  3. National overview – sexually transmitted Disease SURVEILLANCE, 2019. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/std/statistics/2019/overview.htm. Published April 13, 2021. Accessed May 12, 2022.
  4. Doan T, et al. N Engl J Med. 2020 Nov 12;383(20):1941-1950. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2002606. PMID: 33176084. 
  5. Doan T, et al. N Engl J Med. 2019 Jun 6;380(23):2271-2273. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1901535. PMID: 33167060.
  6. Kong FYS, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Jul 15;59(2):193-205. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu220. PMID: 24729507. 
  7. Dombrowski JC, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Sep 7;73(5):842-831. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciab153. PMID: 33606009. 
  8. Connolly KL, et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Feb 26;63(3):e01644-18. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01644-18. PMID: 30642924. 
  9. Páez-Canro C, et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 25;1(1):CD010871. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010871.pub2. PMID: 30682211. 
  10. Dukeres-Muijrers NHTM, et al. Sex Transm Infect. 2021 Mar;97(2):147-151. doi: 10.1136/sextrans-2020-054558. Epub 2020 Jul 31. PMID: 32737209.
  11. Manavi K, et al. Int J STD AIDS. 2016 Dec;27(14):1303-1308. doi: 10.1177/0956462415614723. Epub 2015 Oct 27. PMID: 26511655. 
  12. Chisholm SA, et al. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010 Oct;65(10):2141-8. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkq289. Epub 2010 Aug 6. PMID: 20693173. 
  13. Kastner U, et al. Infection. 2001 Oct;29(5):251-6. doi: 10.1007/s15010-001-1072-3. PMID: 11688901.
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